Philosophy
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Philosophy is the study of almost everything from an abstract and non quantified point-of-view. Philosophy seeks to understand at the most basic level what exists and what is the nature of everything that humans create or ponder. If a question has a definitive answer, it is not a question of philosophy. Example questions of philosophy are

  • What is correct character and conduct (Ethics)?
  • What is beauty (Aesthetics)?
  • What is knowledge (Epistemology)?
  • What exists (Metaphysics)?
  • What is correct reasoning (Logic)?
  • Is there a design to life or a supreme being (Theology)?
  • What is nature of science (Philosophy of science)?
  • What is the nature of language(Philosophy of language) ?
  • What is the nature of law (Philosophy of law) ?
  • What is the nature of the mind (Neurophilosphy)?
  • What is the nature of Mathematics (Philosophy of mathematics)?

The simplest example is the question of Ethics: What is correct character and conduct and how do we decide? There is no universal answer to this question that applies to all cultures. For many, ethics are determined by theology but theologies vary widely. For example there are wide differences in what is believed to be correct character and conduct between Islam and Christianity. Humanists arrive at many of the same rules of conduct as Christians but without the aid of a concept of a supreme being. The humanists view is that morality is innate to humans and does not require the existence of a supreme being. The existentialists arrive at an Ethic which may or may not involve a supreme being as well; however, existentialism is concerned with the nature of the human in the universe. To be continued...